Johnny

u9_start u9_end u9_line
u10_start u10_end u10_line

Content

About Us

Give

Search

u21_start u21_end u21_line

The Vertebral Column

Page by: OpenStax College

u26_start u26_end u26_line

Anatomy & Physiology

Book by: OpenStax College

The vertebral column is also known as the spinal column or spine (Figure). It consists of a sequence of vertebrae (singular = vertebra), each of which is separated and united by an intervertebral disc. Together, the vertebrae and intervertebral discs form the vertebral column. It is a flexible column that supports the head, neck, and body and allows for their movements. It also protects the spinal cord, which passes down the back through openings in the vertebrae.

CONCEPT COACH

My Progress

My Progress

u43_start u43_end u43_line

An Introduction to the Human Body

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Structural Organization of the Human Body

Functions of Human Life

Requirements for Human Life

Homeostasis

Anatomical Terminology

Medical Imaging

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

u49_start u49_end u49_line
u50_start u50_end u50_line
u51_start u51_end u51_line
u52_start u52_end u52_line
u53_start u53_end u53_line
u54_start u54_end u54_line
u55_start u55_end u55_line
u56_start u56_end u56_line
u57_start u57_end u57_line
u58_start u58_end u58_line
u59_start u59_end u59_line
u60_start u60_end u60_line
u61_start u61_end u61_line
u62_start u62_end u62_line
u63_start u63_end u63_line
u64_start u64_end u64_line
u65_start u65_end u65_line
u66_start u66_end u66_line
u67_start u67_end u67_line
u68_start u68_end u68_line
u69_start u69_end u69_line
u70_start u70_end u70_line
u71_start u71_end u71_line
u72_start u72_end u72_line
u73_start u73_end u73_line
u74_start u74_end u74_line
u75_start u75_end u75_line
u76_start u76_end u76_line
u77_start u77_end u77_line
u78_start u78_end u78_line
u79_start u79_end u79_line
u80_start u80_end u80_line
u81_start u81_end u81_line
u82_start u82_end u82_line
u83_start u83_end u83_line
u84_start u84_end u84_line
u85_start u85_end u85_line
u86_start u86_end u86_line
u87_start u87_end u87_line
u88_start u88_end u88_line
u89_start u89_end u89_line

The Chemical Level of Organization

Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

Chemical Bonds

Chemical Reactions

Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning

Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning

 

 

 

2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

 

 

 

The Cellular Level of Organization

The Cell Membrane

The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles

The Nucleus and DNA Replication

Protein Synthesis

Cell Growth and Division

Cellular Differentiation

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

The Tissue Level of Organization

Types of Tissues

Epithelial Tissue

Connective Tissue Supports and Protects

Muscle Tissue and Motion

Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response

Tissue Injury and Aging

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

The Integumentary System

Layers of the Skin

Accessory Structures of the Skin

Functions of the Integumentary System

Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System

The Functions of the Skeletal System

Bone Classification

Bone Structure

Bone Formation and Development

Fractures: Bone Repair

Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue

Calcium Homeostasis:  Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

The Axial Skeleton

Divisions of the Skeletal System

The Skull

7

7.1

7.2

u602_start u602_end u602_line
u603_start u603_end u603_line
u604_start u604_end u604_line

u653_start u653_end u653_line

u678_start u678_end u678_line
u679_start u679_end u679_line

u696_start u696_end u696_line

Johnny

Figure 1.  The adult vertebral column consists of 24 vertebrae, plus the sacrum and coccyx. The vertebrae are divided into three regions: cervical C1–C7 vertebrae, thoracic T1–T12 vertebrae, and lumbar L1–L5 vertebrae. The vertebral column is curved, with two primary curvatures (thoracic and sacrococcygeal curves) and two secondary curvatures (cervical and lumbar curves).

Regions of the Vertebral Column

 

The vertebral column originally develops as a series of 33 vertebrae, but this number is eventually reduced to 24 vertebrae, plus the sacrum and coccyx. The vertebral column is subdivided into five regions, with the vertebrae in each area named for that region and numbered in descending order. In the neck, there are seven cervical vertebrae, each designated with the letter “C” followed by its number. Superiorly, the C1 vertebra articulates (forms a joint) with the occipital condyles of the skull. Inferiorly, C1 articulates with the C2 vertebra, and so on. Below these are the 12 thoracic vertebrae, designated T1–T12. The lower back contains the L1–L5 lumbar vertebrae. The single sacrum, which is also part of the pelvis, is formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae. Similarly, the coccyx, or tailbone, results from the fusion of four small coccygeal vertebrae. However, the sacral and coccygeal fusions do not start until age 20 and are not completed until middle age.

 

An interesting anatomical fact is that almost all mammals have seven cervical vertebrae, regardless of body size. This means that there are large variations in the size of cervical vertebrae, ranging from the very small cervical vertebrae of a shrew to the greatly elongated vertebrae in the neck of a giraffe. In a full-grown giraffe, each cervical vertebra is 11 inches tall.

 

Curvatures of the Vertebral Column

 

The adult vertebral column does not form a straight line, but instead has four curvatures along its length (see Figure). These curves increase the vertebral column’s strength, flexibility, and ability to absorb shock. When the load on the spine is increased, by carrying a heavy backpack for example, the curvatures increase in depth (become more curved) to accommodate the extra weight. They then spring back when the weight is removed. The four adult curvatures are classified as either primary or secondary curvatures. Primary curves are retained from the original fetal curvature, while secondary curvatures develop after birth.

 

During fetal development, the body is flexed anteriorly into the fetal position, giving the entire vertebral column a single curvature that is concave anteriorly. In the adult, this fetal curvature is retained in two regions of the vertebral column as the thoracic curve, which involves the thoracic vertebrae, and the sacrococcygeal curve, formed by the sacrum and coccyx. Each of these is thus called a primary curve because they are retained from the original fetal curvature of the vertebral column.

 

A secondary curve develops gradually after birth as the child learns to sit upright, stand, and walk. Secondary curves are concave posteriorly, opposite in direction to the original fetal curvature. The cervical curve of the neck region develops as the infant begins to hold their head upright when sitting. Later, as the child begins to stand and then to walk, the lumbar curve of the lower back develops. In adults, the lumbar curve is generally deeper in females.

 

Disorders associated with the curvature of the spine include kyphosis (an excessive posterior curvature of the thoracic region), lordosis (an excessive anterior curvature of the lumbar region), and scoliosis (an abnormal, lateral curvature, accompanied by twisting of the vertebral column).

 

General Structure of a Vertebra

 

Within the different regions of the vertebral column, vertebrae vary in size and shape, but they all follow a similar structural pattern. A typical vertebra will consist of a body, a vertebral arch, and seven processes (Figure).

 

The body is the anterior portion of each vertebra and is the part that supports the body weight. Because of this, the vertebral bodies progressively increase in size and thickness going down the vertebral column. The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are separated and strongly united by an intervertebral disc.

 

The vertebral arch forms the posterior portion of each vertebra. It consists of four parts, the right and left pedicles and the right and left laminae. Each pedicle forms one of the lateral sides of the vertebral arch. The pedicles are anchored to the posterior side of the vertebral body. Each lamina forms part of the posterior roof of the vertebral arch. The large opening between the vertebral arch and body is the vertebral foramen, which contains the spinal cord. In the intact vertebral column, the vertebral foramina of all of the vertebrae align to form the vertebral (spinal) canal, which serves as the bony protection and passageway for the spinal cord down the back. When the vertebrae are aligned together in the vertebral column, notches in the margins of the pedicles of adjacent vertebrae together form an intervertebral foramen, the opening through which a spinal nerve exits from the vertebral column (Figure).

 

Seven processes arise from the vertebral arch. Each paired transverse process projects laterally and arises from the junction point between the pedicle and lamina. The single spinous process (vertebral spine) projects posteriorly at the midline of the back. The vertebral spines can easily be felt as a series of bumps just under the skin down the middle of the back. The transverse and spinous processes serve as important muscle attachment sites. A superior articular process extends or faces upward, and an inferior articular process faces or projects downward on each side of a vertebrae. The paired superior articular processes of one vertebra join with the corresponding paired inferior articular processes from the next higher vertebra. These junctions form slightly moveable joints between the adjacent vertebrae. The shape and orientation of the articular processes vary in different regions of the vertebral column and play a major role in determining the type and range of motion available in each region.

 

Figure 4.  A typical vertebra consists of a body and a vertebral arch. The arch is formed by the paired pedicles and paired laminae. Arising from the vertebral arch are the transverse, spinous, superior articular, and inferior articular processes. The vertebral foramen provides for passage of the spinal cord. Each spinal nerve exits through an intervertebral foramen, located between adjacent vertebrae. Intervertebral discs unite the bodies of adjacent vertebrae.

Figure 5.  The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are separated and united by an intervertebral disc, which provides padding and allows for movements between adjacent vertebrae. The disc consists of a fibrous outer layer called the anulus fibrosus and a gel-like center called the nucleus pulposus. The intervertebral foramen is the opening formed between adjacent vertebrae for the exit of a spinal nerve.

 

Regional Modifications of Vertebrae

 

In addition to the general characteristics of a typical vertebra described above, vertebrae also display characteristic size and structural features that vary between the different vertebral column regions. Thus, cervical vertebrae are smaller than lumbar vertebrae due to differences in the proportion of body weight that each supports. Thoracic vertebrae have sites for rib attachment, and the vertebrae that give rise to the sacrum and coccyx have fused together into single bones.

 

 

Cervical Vertebrae

 

Typical cervical vertebrae, such as C4 or C5, have several characteristic features that differentiate them from thoracic or lumbar vertebrae (Figure). Cervical vertebrae have a small body, reflecting the fact that they carry the least amount of body weight. Cervical vertebrae usually have a bifid (Y-shaped) spinous process. The spinous processes of the C3–C6 vertebrae are short, but the spine of C7 is much longer. You can find these vertebrae by running your finger down the midline of the posterior neck until you encounter the prominent C7 spine located at the base of the neck. The transverse processes of the cervical vertebrae are sharply curved (U-shaped) to allow for passage of the cervical spinal nerves. Each transverse process also has an opening called the transverse foramen. An important artery that supplies the brain ascends up the neck by passing through these openings. The superior and inferior articular processes of the cervical vertebrae are flattened and largely face upward or downward, respectively.

 

The first and second cervical vertebrae are further modified, giving each a distinctive appearance. The first cervical (C1) vertebra is also called the atlas, because this is the vertebra that supports the skull on top of the vertebral column (in Greek mythology, Atlas was the god who supported the heavens on his shoulders). The C1 vertebra does not have a body or spinous process. Instead, it is ring-shaped, consisting of an anterior arch and a posterior arch. The transverse processes of the atlas are longer and extend more laterally than do the transverse processes of any other cervical vertebrae. The superior articular processes face upward and are deeply curved for articulation with the occipital condyles on the base of the skull. The inferior articular processes are flat and face downward to join with the superior articular processes of the C2 vertebra.

 

The second cervical (C2) vertebra is called the axis, because it serves as the axis for rotation when turning the head toward the right or left. The axis resembles typical cervical vertebrae in most respects, but is easily distinguished by the dens (odontoid process), a bony projection that extends upward from the vertebral body. The dens joins with the inner aspect of the anterior arch of the atlas, where it is held in place by transverse ligament.

Figure 6.  A typical cervical vertebra has a small body, a bifid spinous process, transverse processes that have a transverse foramen and are curved for spinal nerve passage. The atlas (C1 vertebra) does not have a body or spinous process. It consists of an anterior and a posterior arch and elongated transverse processes. The axis (C2 vertebra) has the upward projecting dens, which articulates with the anterior arch of the atlas.

 

Thoracic Vertebrae

 

The bodies of the thoracic vertebrae are larger than those of cervical vertebrae (Figure). The characteristic feature for a typical midthoracic vertebra is the spinous process, which is long and has a pronounced downward angle that causes it to overlap the next inferior vertebra. The superior articular processes of thoracic vertebrae face anteriorly and the inferior processes face posteriorly. These orientations are important determinants for the type and range of movements available to the thoracic region of the vertebral column.

Thoracic vertebrae have several additional articulation sites, each of which is called a facet, where a rib is attached. Most thoracic vertebrae have two facets located on the lateral sides of the body, each of which is called a costal facet (costal = “rib”). These are for articulation with the head (end) of a rib. An additional facet is located on the transverse process for articulation with the tubercle of a rib.

Figure 7.  A typical thoracic vertebra is distinguished by the spinous process, which is long and projects downward to overlap the next inferior vertebra. It also has articulation sites (facets) on the vertebral body and a transverse process for rib attachment.

Figure 8.  Thoracic vertebrae have superior and inferior articular facets on the vertebral body for articulation with the head of a rib, and a transverse process facet for articulation with the rib tubercle.

Lumbar Vertebrae

 

Lumbar vertebrae carry the greatest amount of body weight and are thus characterized by the large size and thickness of the vertebral body (Figure). They have short transverse processes and a short, blunt spinous process that projects posteriorly. The articular processes are large, with the superior process facing backward and the inferior facing forward.

Figure 9.  Lumbar vertebrae are characterized by having a large, thick body and a short, rounded spinous process.

Sacrum and Coccyx

 

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone that is thick and wide across its superior base where it is weight bearing and then tapers down to an inferior, non-weight bearing apex (Figure). It is formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae, a process that does not begin until after the age of 20. On the anterior surface of the older adult sacrum, the lines of vertebral fusion can be seen as four transverse ridges. On the posterior surface, running down the midline, is the median sacral crest, a bumpy ridge that is the remnant of the fused spinous processes (median = “midline”; while medial = “toward, but not necessarily at, the midline”). Similarly, the fused transverse processes of the sacral vertebrae form the lateral sacral crest.

 

The sacral promontory is the anterior lip of the superior base of the sacrum. Lateral to this is the roughened auricular surface, which joins with the ilium portion of the hipbone to form the immobile sacroiliac joints of the pelvis. Passing inferiorly through the sacrum is a bony tunnel called the sacral canal, which terminates at the sacral hiatus near the inferior tip of the sacrum. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the sacrum have a series of paired openings called sacral foramina (singular = foramen) that connect to the sacral canal. Each of these openings is called a posterior (dorsal) sacral foramen or anterior (ventral) sacral foramen. These openings allow for the anterior and posterior branches of the sacral spinal nerves to exit the sacrum. The superior articular process of the sacrum, one of which is found on either side of the superior opening of the sacral canal, articulates with the inferior articular processes from the L5 vertebra.

 

The coccyx, or tailbone, is derived from the fusion of four very small coccygeal vertebrae (see Figure). It articulates with the inferior tip of the sacrum. It is not weight bearing in the standing position, but may receive some body weight when sitting.

Figure 10.  The sacrum is formed from the fusion of five sacral vertebrae, whose lines of fusion are indicated by the transverse ridges. The fused spinous processes form the median sacral crest, while the lateral sacral crest arises from the fused transverse processes. The coccyx is formed by the fusion of four small coccygeal vertebrae.

Intervertebral Discs and Ligaments of the Vertebral Column

 

The bodies of adjacent vertebrae are strongly anchored to each other by an intervertebral disc. This structure provides padding between the bones during weight bearing, and because it can change shape, also allows for movement between the vertebrae. Although the total amount of movement available between any two adjacent vertebrae is small, when these movements are summed together along the entire length of the vertebral column, large body movements can be produced. Ligaments that extend along the length of the vertebral column also contribute to its overall support and stability.

 

 

Intervertebral Disc

 

An intervertebral disc is a fibrocartilaginous pad that fills the gap between adjacent vertebral bodies (see Figure). Each disc is anchored to the bodies of its adjacent vertebrae, thus strongly uniting these. The discs also provide padding between vertebrae during weight bearing. Because of this, intervertebral discs are thin in the cervical region and thickest in the lumbar region, which carries the most body weight. In total, the intervertebral discs account for approximately 25 percent of your body height between the top of the pelvis and the base of the skull. Intervertebral discs are also flexible and can change shape to allow for movements of the vertebral column.

 

Each intervertebral disc consists of two parts. The anulus fibrosus is the tough, fibrous outer layer of the disc. It forms a circle (anulus = “ring” or “circle”) and is firmly anchored to the outer margins of the adjacent vertebral bodies. Inside is the nucleus pulposus, consisting of a softer, more gel-like material. It has a high water content that serves to resist compression and thus is important for weight bearing. With increasing age, the water content of the nucleus pulposus gradually declines. This causes the disc to become thinner, decreasing total body height somewhat, and reduces the flexibility and range of motion of the disc, making bending more difficult.

 

The gel-like nature of the nucleus pulposus also allows the intervertebral disc to change shape as one vertebra rocks side to side or forward and back in relation to its neighbors during movements of the vertebral column. Thus, bending forward causes compression of the anterior portion of the disc but expansion of the posterior disc. If the posterior anulus fibrosus is weakened due to injury or increasing age, the pressure exerted on the disc when bending forward and lifting a heavy object can cause the nucleus pulposus to protrude posteriorly through the anulus fibrosus, resulting in a herniated disc (“ruptured” or “slipped” disc) (Figure). The posterior bulging of the nucleus pulposus can cause compression of a spinal nerve at the point where it exits through the intervertebral foramen, with resulting pain and/or muscle weakness in those body regions supplied by that nerve. The most common sites for disc herniation are the L4/L5 or L5/S1 intervertebral discs, which can cause sciatica, a widespread pain that radiates from the lower back down the thigh and into the leg. Similar injuries of the C5/C6 or C6/C7 intervertebral discs, following forcible hyperflexion of the neck from a collision accident or football injury, can produce pain in the neck, shoulder, and upper limb.

Figure 11.  Weakening of the anulus fibrosus can result in herniation (protrusion) of the nucleus pulposus and compression of a spinal nerve, resulting in pain and/or muscle weakness in the body regions supplied by that nerve.

Ligaments of the Vertebral Column

 

Adjacent vertebrae are united by ligaments that run the length of the vertebral column along both its posterior and anterior aspects (Figure). These serve to resist excess forward or backward bending movements of the vertebral column, respectively.

 

The anterior longitudinal ligament runs down the anterior side of the entire vertebral column, uniting the vertebral bodies. It serves to resist excess backward bending of the vertebral column. Protection against this movement is particularly important in the neck, where extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear this ligament, resulting in a painful whiplash injury. Prior to the mandatory installation of seat headrests, whiplash injuries were common for passengers involved in a rear-end automobile collision.

 

The supraspinous ligament is located on the posterior side of the vertebral column, where it interconnects the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. This strong ligament supports the vertebral column during forward bending motions. In the posterior neck, where the cervical spinous processes are short, the supraspinous ligament expands to become the nuchal ligament (nuchae = “nape” or “back of the neck”). The nuchal ligament is attached to the cervical spinous processes and extends upward and posteriorly to attach to the midline base of the skull, out to the external occipital protuberance. It supports the skull and prevents it from falling forward. This ligament is much larger and stronger in four-legged animals such as cows, where the large skull hangs off the front end of the vertebral column. You can easily feel this ligament by first extending your head backward and pressing down on the posterior midline of your neck. Then tilt your head forward and you will fill the nuchal ligament popping out as it tightens to limit anterior bending of the head and neck.

 

Additional ligaments are located inside the vertebral canal, next to the spinal cord, along the length of the vertebral column. The posterior longitudinal ligament is found anterior to the spinal cord, where it is attached to the posterior sides of the vertebral bodies. Posterior to the spinal cord is the ligamentum flavum (“yellow ligament”). This consists of a series of short, paired ligaments, each of which interconnects the lamina regions of adjacent vertebrae. The ligamentum flavum has large numbers of elastic fibers, which have a yellowish color, allowing it to stretch and then pull back. Both of these ligaments provide important support for the vertebral column when bending forward.

Figure 12.  The anterior longitudinal ligament runs the length of the vertebral column, uniting the anterior sides of the vertebral bodies. The supraspinous ligament connects the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. In the posterior neck, the supraspinous ligament enlarges to form the nuchal ligament, which attaches to the cervical spinous processes and to the base of the skull.

Chapter Review

 

The vertebral column forms the neck and back. The vertebral column originally develops as 33 vertebrae, but is eventually reduced to 24 vertebrae, plus the sacrum and coccyx. The vertebrae are divided into the cervical region (C1–C7 vertebrae), the thoracic region (T1–T12 vertebrae), and the lumbar region (L1–L5 vertebrae). The sacrum arises from the fusion of five sacral vertebrae and the coccyx from the fusion of four small coccygeal vertebrae. The vertebral column has four curvatures, the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacrococcygeal curves. The thoracic and sacrococcygeal curves are primary curves retained from the original fetal curvature. The cervical and lumbar curves develop after birth and thus are secondary curves. The cervical curve develops as the infant begins to hold up the head, and the lumbar curve appears with standing and walking.

 

A typical vertebra consists of an enlarged anterior portion called the body, which provides weight-bearing support. Attached posteriorly to the body is a vertebral arch, which surrounds and defines the vertebral foramen for passage of the spinal cord. The vertebral arch consists of the pedicles, which attach to the vertebral body, and the laminae, which come together to form the roof of the arch. Arising from the vertebral arch are the laterally projecting transverse processes and the posteriorly oriented spinous process. The superior articular processes project upward, where they articulate with the downward projecting inferior articular processes of the next higher vertebrae.

 

A typical cervical vertebra has a small body, a bifid (Y-shaped) spinous process, and U-shaped transverse processes with a transverse foramen. In addition to these characteristics, the axis (C2 vertebra) also has the dens projecting upward from the vertebral body. The atlas (C1 vertebra) differs from the other cervical vertebrae in that it does not have a body, but instead consists of bony ring formed by the anterior and posterior arches. The atlas articulates with the dens from the axis. A typical thoracic vertebra is distinguished by its long, downward projecting spinous process. Thoracic vertebrae also have articulation facets on the body and transverse processes for attachment of the ribs. Lumbar vertebrae support the greatest amount of body weight and thus have a large, thick body. They also have a short, blunt spinous process. The sacrum is triangular in shape. The median sacral crest is formed by the fused vertebral spinous processes and the lateral sacral crest is derived from the fused transverse processes. Anterior (ventral) and posterior (dorsal) sacral foramina allow branches of the sacral spinal nerves to exit the sacrum. The auricular surfaces are articulation sites on the lateral sacrum that anchor the sacrum to the hipbones to form the pelvis. The coccyx is small and derived from the fusion of four small vertebrae.

 

The intervertebral discs fill in the gaps between the bodies of adjacent vertebrae. They provide strong attachments and padding between the vertebrae. The outer, fibrous layer of a disc is called the anulus fibrosus. The gel-like interior is called the nucleus pulposus. The disc can change shape to allow for movement between vertebrae. If the anulus fibrosus is weakened or damaged, the nucleus pulposus can protrude outward, resulting in a herniated disc.

 

The anterior longitudinal ligament runs along the full length of the anterior vertebral column, uniting the vertebral bodies. The supraspinous ligament is located posteriorly and interconnects the spinous processes of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae. In the neck, this ligament expands to become the nuchal ligament. The nuchal ligament is attached to the cervical spinous processes and superiorly to the base of the skull, out to the external occipital protuberance. The posterior longitudinal ligament runs within the vertebral canal and unites the posterior sides of the vertebral bodies. The ligamentum flavum unites the lamina of adjacent vertebrae.

 

Question 1

1. Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand....

1. Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand....

Answer

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

Retrieval pracitce, also known as quizzing yourself, is highly beneficial for learning. Concept Coach question sets help you retain what you read.

×

Submit

Submit

Label

b

The lumbar curve

a

The thoracic curve

c

The primary curves

d

The sacrococcygeal curve

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

w

Label

b

The lumbar curve

c

The primary curves

d

The sacrococcygeal curve

The thoracic curve

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

Next Question

This primary curve is formed during fetal development.

Label

a

The lumbar curve

c

The primary curves

d

The sacrococcygeal curve

The thoracic curve

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

Next Question

This is a secondary curve formed after birth

Label

a

The lumbar curve

b

The primary curves

d

The sacrococcygeal curve

The thoracic curve

These, by definition, form before birth.

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

Next Question

Label

b

The lumbar curve

c

The primary curves

The sacrococcygeal curve

a

The thoracic curve

Which curve of the spinal column would form after birth as the child begins to stand and walk?

1

Next Question

The primary curve is formed during fetal development.

Question 2

2. A factory that makes 1,000 widgets can do so at an average cost of $20 per widget....

2. External posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

Answer

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

Why two steps?

Concept Coach helps you improve long-term retention by asking you to recall answers from memory before selecting a multiple choice response.

×

Submit

Submit

Label

b

The posterior longitudinal ligament

a

The anterior longitudinal ligament

c

The nuchal ligament

d

The supraspinous ligament

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

Label

b

The posterior longitudinal ligament

c

The nuchal ligament

d

The supraspinous ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament

This ligament would be the most affected by whiplash.

Next Question

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

Label

a

The posterior longitudinal ligament

c

The nuchal ligament

d

The supraspinous ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament

Next Question

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

This ligament is on the anterior side but attaches to the posterior side of the vertebral column so it is not damaged by whiplash.

Label

a

The posterior longitudinal ligament

b

The nuchal ligament

d

The supraspinous ligament

The anterior longitudinal ligament

Next Question

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

This ligament is on the wrong side of the vertebral column to be damaged by whiplash.

Label

b

The posterior longitudinal ligament

c

The nuchal ligament

The supraspinous ligament

a

The anterior longitudinal ligament

Next Question

Extreme posterior bending of the head and neck can stretch or tear which ligament?

2

This ligament is on the wrong side of the vertebral column to be damaged by whiplash.

Question 3

3. What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

3. What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

Answer

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

Why two steps?

Concept Coach helps you improve long-term retention by asking you to recall answers from memory before selecting a multiple choice response.

×

Submit

Submit

Label

b

The anterior region of the skull

a

Upper lateral side of the skull

c

Lower lateral side of the skull

d

The roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

Label

b

The anterior region of the skull

c

Lower lateral side of the skull

d

The roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity

Upper lateral side of the skull

This is the location of the parietal bone.

Done

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

Label

The anterior region of the skull

c

Lower lateral side of the skull

d

The roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity

Upper lateral side of the skull

This is the location of the frontal bone.

Done

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

a

Label

The anterior region of the skull

b

Lower lateral side of the skull

d

The roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity

Upper lateral side of the skull

This is the location of the temporarl bone.

Done

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

a

Label

b

The anterior region of the skull

c

Lower lateral side of the skull

a

The roof and upper walls of the nasal cavity

Upper lateral side of the skull

This is the location of the nasal bone.

Done

What is the location of the temporal bone of the skull?

 

3

CONCEPT COACH

My Progress

My Progress

u1525_start u1525_end u1525_line

An Introduction to the Human Body

Overview of Anatomy and Physiology

Structural Organization of the Human Body

Functions of Human Life

Requirements for Human Life

Homeostasis

Anatomical Terminology

Medical Imaging

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

u1531_start u1531_end u1531_line
u1532_start u1532_end u1532_line
u1533_start u1533_end u1533_line
u1534_start u1534_end u1534_line
u1535_start u1535_end u1535_line
u1536_start u1536_end u1536_line
u1537_start u1537_end u1537_line
u1538_start u1538_end u1538_line
u1539_start u1539_end u1539_line
u1540_start u1540_end u1540_line
u1541_start u1541_end u1541_line
u1542_start u1542_end u1542_line
u1543_start u1543_end u1543_line
u1544_start u1544_end u1544_line
u1545_start u1545_end u1545_line
u1546_start u1546_end u1546_line
u1547_start u1547_end u1547_line
u1548_start u1548_end u1548_line
u1549_start u1549_end u1549_line
u1550_start u1550_end u1550_line
u1551_start u1551_end u1551_line
u1552_start u1552_end u1552_line
u1553_start u1553_end u1553_line
u1554_start u1554_end u1554_line
u1555_start u1555_end u1555_line
u1556_start u1556_end u1556_line
u1557_start u1557_end u1557_line
u1558_start u1558_end u1558_line
u1559_start u1559_end u1559_line
u1560_start u1560_end u1560_line
u1561_start u1561_end u1561_line
u1562_start u1562_end u1562_line
u1563_start u1563_end u1563_line
u1564_start u1564_end u1564_line
u1565_start u1565_end u1565_line
u1566_start u1566_end u1566_line
u1567_start u1567_end u1567_line
u1568_start u1568_end u1568_line
u1569_start u1569_end u1569_line
u1570_start u1570_end u1570_line
u1571_start u1571_end u1571_line

The Chemical Level of Organization

Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter

Chemical Bonds

Chemical Reactions

Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning

Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning

 

 

 

2

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

 

 

 

The Cellular Level of Organization

The Cell Membrane

The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles

The Nucleus and DNA Replication

Protein Synthesis

Cell Growth and Division

Cellular Differentiation

3

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

The Tissue Level of Organization

Types of Tissues

Epithelial Tissue

Connective Tissue Supports and Protects

Muscle Tissue and Motion

Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response

Tissue Injury and Aging

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

4.5

4.6

The Integumentary System

Layers of the Skin

Accessory Structures of the Skin

Functions of the Integumentary System

Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System

The Functions of the Skeletal System

Bone Classification

Bone Structure

Bone Formation and Development

Fractures: Bone Repair

Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue

Calcium Homeostasis:  Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

6.5

6.6

6.7

The Axial Skeleton

Divisions of the Skeletal System

The Skull

7

7.1

7.2

u2084_start u2084_end u2084_line
u2085_start u2085_end u2085_line
u2086_start u2086_end u2086_line

u2135_start u2135_end u2135_line

u2160_start u2160_end u2160_line
u2161_start u2161_end u2161_line

u2178_start u2178_end u2178_line

Johnny

JUMP TO CONCEPT COACH