Question 1

1. What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most....

1. What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most....

Answer

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

1

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Label

b

Social construction of illness

a

Medical sociology

c

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

1

w

Label

b

Social construction of illness

c

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

Medical sociology

This is the study of how humans manage health issues.

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

1

Next Question

Label

a

Social construction of illness

c

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

Medical sociology

This is the concept of illness as a subjective experience.

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

1

Next Question

Label

a

Social construction of illness

b

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

Medical sociology

This is an unfavorable perception of ill persons pervasive enough to affect the quality of care the ill receive.

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

1

Next Question

Label

b

Social construction of illness

c

Stigmatization of illness

Social epidemiology

a

Medical sociology

This is the study of the causes and distribution of diseases across different countries.

What kind of study helps to determine which health concerns tend to be most prevalent in different countries?

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Global Health

Derived from Global Health by OpenStax College

Page by: OpenStax College

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Introduction to Sociology 2e

Derived from Introduction to Sociology by OpenStax College

Book by: OpenStax College

Social epidemiology is the study of the causes and distribution of diseases. Social epidemiology can reveal how social problems are connected to the health of different populations. These epidemiological studies show that the health problems of high-income nations differ greatly from those of low-income nations. Some diseases, like cancer, are universal. But others, like obesity, heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes are much more common in high-income countries and are a direct result of a sedentary lifestyle combined with poor diet. High-income nations also have a higher incidence of depression (Bromet et al. 2011). In contrast, low-income nations suffer significantly from malaria and tuberculosis.

 

How does health differ around the world? Some theorists differentiate among three types of countries: core nations, semi-peripheral nations, and peripheral nations. Core nations are those that we think of as highly developed or industrialized, semi-peripheral nations are those that are often called developing or newly industrialized, and peripheral nations are those that are relatively undeveloped. While the most pervasive issue in the U.S. healthcare system is affordable access to healthcare, other core countries have different issues, and semi-peripheral and peripheral nations are faced with a host of additional concerns. Reviewing the status of global health offers insight into the various ways that politics and wealth shape access to healthcare, and it shows which populations are most affected by health disparities.

 

 

Health in High-Income Nations

 

Obesity, which is on the rise in high-income nations, has been linked to many diseases, including cardiovascular problems, musculoskeletal problems, diabetes, and respiratory issues. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (2011), obesity rates are rising in all countries, with the greatest gains being made in the highest-income countries. The United States has the highest obesity rate. Wallace Huffman and his fellow researchers (2006) contend that several factors are contributing to the rise in obesity in developed countries:

 

    Improvements in technology and reduced family size have led to a reduction of work to be done in household production.

    Unhealthy market goods, including processed foods, sweetened drinks, and sweet and salty snacks are replacing home-

      produced goods.

    Leisure activities are growing more sedentary, for example, computer games, web surfing, and television viewing.

    More workers are shifting from active work (agriculture and manufacturing) to service industries.

    Increased access to passive transportation has led to more driving and less walking.

 

Obesity and weight issues have significant societal costs, including lower life expectancies and higher shared healthcare costs.

 

High-income countries also have higher rates of depression than less affluent nations. A recent study (Bromet et al. 2011) shows that the average lifetime prevalence of major depressive episodes in the ten highest-income countries in the study was 14.6 percent; this compared to 11.1 percent in the eight low- and middle-income countries. The researchers speculate that the higher rate of depression may be linked to the greater income inequality that exists in the highest-income nations.

 

Health in Low-Income Nations

Figure 1.  In low-income countries, malnutrition and lack of access to clean water contribute to a high child mortality rate. (Photo courtesy of Steve Evans/flickr)

In peripheral nations with low per capita income, it is not the cost of healthcare that is the most pressing concern. Rather, low-income countries must manage such problems as infectious disease, high infant mortality rates, scarce medical personnel, and inadequate water and sewer systems. Such issues, which high-income countries rarely even think about, are central to the lives of most people in low-income nations. Due to such health concerns, low-income nations have higher rates of infant mortality and lower average life spans.

 

One of the biggest contributors to medical issues in low-income countries is the lack of access to clean water and basic sanitation resources. According to a 2014 UNICEF report, almost half of the developing world’s population lacks improved sanitation facilities. The World Health Organization (WHO) tracks health-related data for 193 countries. In their 2011 World Health Statistics report, they document the following statistics:

    Globally, the rate of mortality for children under five was 60 per 1,000 live births. In low-income countries, however, that rate is

       almost double at 117 per 1,000 live births. In high-income countries, that rate is significantly lower than seven per 1,000 live

       births.

    The most frequent causes of death for children under five were pneumonia and diarrheal diseases, accounting for 18 percent and

       15 percent, respectively. These deaths could be easily avoidable with cleaner water and more coverage of available medical

       care.

    The availability of doctors and nurses in low-income countries is one-tenth that of nations with a high income. Challenges in

       access to medical education and access to patients exacerbate this issue for would-be medical professionals in low-income

       countries (World Health Organization 2011).

 

Summary

 

Social epidemiology is the study of the causes and distribution of diseases. From a global perspective, the health issues of high-income nations tend toward diseases like cancer as well as those that are linked to obesity, like heart disease, diabetes, and musculoskeletal disorders. Low-income nations are more likely to contend with infectious disease, high infant mortality rates, scarce medical personnel, and inadequate water and sanitation systems.

 

Question 2

2. A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and....

2. A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and....

Answer

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Why two steps?

Concept Coach helps you improve long-term retention by asking you to recall answers from memory before selecting a multiple choice response.

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Label

b

Personality

a

Mood

c

Impulsivity

d

Anxiety

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Label

b

Personality

c

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

Mood

Mood disorders would be characterized by reduced energy and depressed mood, with less motivation to perform household chores like cleaning.

Next Question

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Label

a

Personality

c

Stigmatization of illness

d

Social epidemiology

Mood

Personality disorders are characterized by abnormal behaviors that are not recognized as abnormal by the individual exhibiting them.

Next Question

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Label

a

Personality

b

Impulsivity

d

Anxiety

Mood

Excessive impulsivity is characterized by trouble staying focused on one task for longer periods of time.

Next Question

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Label

b

Personality

c

Impulsivity

Anxiety

a

Mood

Anxiety disorders are characterized by excessive and long-lasting worry.

Next Question

A person reports constant and excessive worry about household messes, and he experiences strong urges to clean the house on a daily basis. Which category of mental disorders would this person fall under?

2

Question 3

3. How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad....

3. How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad....

Answer

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

Revisiting what you previously learned will help you remember it longer, so Concept Coach provides review questions automatically.

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b

It would promote healing and growth based on social support.

a

The individual would be treated as having a medical disease that defines them and must be treated through anti-depressants rather than counseling.

c

The individual would gain new understanding of the biological processes that interact with the psychological processes of grief.

d

It would focus on the physiological changes that occur as a result of the normal healing process.

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

Label

b

It would promote healing and growth based on social support.

c

The individual would gain new understanding of the biological processes that interact with the psychological processes of grief.

d

It would focus on the physiological changes that occur as a result of the normal healing process.

The individual would be treated as having a medical disease that defines them and must be treated through anti-depressants rather than counseling.

Medicalization redefines normal aspects of human life, such as grief, as abnormal and in need of medical attention.

Done

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

Label

It would promote healing and growth based on social support.

c

The individual would gain new understanding of the biological processes that interact with the psychological processes of grief.

d

It would focus on the physiological changes that occur as a result of the normal healing process.

The individual would be treated as having a medical disease that defines them and must be treated through anti-depressants rather than counseling.

Social support would not be part of the remedy in medicalization.

Done

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

b

Label

It would promote healing and growth based on social support.

b

The individual would gain new understanding of the biological processes that interact with the psychological processes of grief.

d

It would focus on the physiological changes that occur as a result of the normal healing process.

The individual would be treated as having a medical disease that defines them and must be treated through anti-depressants rather than counseling.

This is an integrated approach rather than medicalization.

Done

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

a

Label

b

It would promote healing and growth based on social support.

c

The individual would gain new understanding of the biological processes that interact with the psychological processes of grief.

a

It would focus on the physiological changes that occur as a result of the normal healing process.

The individual would be treated as having a medical disease that defines them and must be treated through anti-depressants rather than counseling.

Medicalization would not see the changes as a normal process.

Done

How would the medicalization of society influence the way someone who feels sad after the loss of a loved one is treated?

3

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An Introduction to Sociology

Introduction to Sociology

What Is Sociology?

The History of Sociology

Theoretical Perspectives

Why Study Sociology?

1

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

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Society and Social Interaction

    Introduction to Society and Social Interaction

    Types of Societies

    Theoretical Perspectives on Society

    Social Constructions of Reality

4

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

Socialization

    Introduction to Socialization

    Theories of Self Development

    Why Socialization Matters

    Agents of Socialization

    Socialization Across the Life Course

5

5.1

5.2

5.3

5.4

5.5

Groups and Organization

    Introduction to Groups and Organizations

    Types of Groups

    Group Size and Structure

    Formal Organizations

6

6.1

6.2

6.3

6.4

Marriage and Family

    Introduction to Marriage and Family

    What Is Marriage? What Is a Family?

    Variations in Family Life

    Challenges Families Face

14

14.1

14.2

14.3

14.4

Religion

    Introduction to Religion

    The Sociological Approach to Religion

    World Religions

    Religion in the United States

15

15.1

15.2

15.3

15.4

Education

    Introduction to Education

    Education around the World

    Theoretical Perspectives on Education

    Issues in Education

16

16.1

16.2

16.3

16.4

Health and Medicine

    Introduction to Health and Medicine

    The Social Construction of Health

    Global Health

    Health in the United States

    Comparative Health and Medicine

    Theoretical Perspectives on Health and Medicine

19

19.1

19.2

19.3

19.4

19.5

19.6

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